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“Umushikiranganji wa mbere” : vyinshi kuri iyo ntebe igiye kugarukanwa mu Burundi

Inyuma y’amatora y’2020, aho kugira umukuru w’igihugu afise ivyegera bibiri nk’uko twari tubimenyereye, amabanga yo kurongora igihugu azoba yega abantu babiri bakomeye : umukuru w’igihugu hamwe n’umushikiranganji wa mbere. Reka turabire hamwe ivy’iyo ntebe yari yarigeze kuba mu ntwaro y’igihugu cacu, haheze imyaka 20. 

Ingingo y’129 y’ibwirizwa shingiro ryo muri Ruheshi 2018 ivuga ko umukuru w’igihugu atari we azoba arongoye Reta, ahubwo izoba irongowe n’umushikiranganji wa mbere.  Afashijwe n’abandi bose bagize Reta, ni bo bazoba babazwa ivy’igihugu imbere y’umukuru w’igihugu. Kugeza uno musi, umukuru w’igihugu yahora aba afashwa mu mabanga n’ivyegera bibiri, ubu azoba afise icegera kimwe gusa.

Mu Burundi, iyo ntebe y’umushikiranganji wa mbere yabayeho kera, kurusha mbere n’iy’umukuru w’igihugu.  Ubwa mbere, yatanguye kubaho ku ntwaro ya cami, inyuma y’ amatora yo mu makomine yo muri Munyonyo na Kigarama, mu 1960. Aho nta n’itegeko rigenga igihugu ryari rihari.

Kuva ico gihe, iyo ntebe yagumyeho, n’aho yongera ikaja irakurwaho na canecane muri repubulika zitatu za mbere, bivuye ku bakuru b’igihugu bakiramutswa, kugeza mu 1998, igihe iyo ntebe yafutwa burundu, kugira hajeho ivyegera bibiri vy’umukuru w’igihugu.  

Bigitangura, yari intebe ata tegeko riyigenga…

Uburundi bwaronse “ibwirizwa shingiro ry’imfatakibanza muri Munyonyo 1961”, umwaka umwe inyuma y’amatora yo mu 1960, yatsinzwe n’umugambwe PDC urushije umugambwe wa Rwagasore.

Muri iryo bwirizwa shingiro ryari ryanditse ku mpapuro 14 mu ndimi z’igifaransa n’ikirundi, co kimwe no mw’ibwirizwa shingiro ryo muri Gitugutu 1962, ryari ryanditswe ku mpapuro 6 mu gifaransa gusa, ibigabane vya II biraba ivy’intwaro, nta kintu na kimwe bivuga ku ntebe y’umushikiranganji wa mbere, vyaba ivyo ajejwe, canke ibindi.

Igice ca mbere c’ico kigabane kivuga ivyerekeye umwami, naco ica kabiri kikavuga ku bashikiranganji. Ariko, nta na kimwe kivugwa ku mushikiranganji wa mbere. 

Naho biri uko, ingoma y’Uburundi yagumye ifise umushikiranganji wa mbere kugeza isenyuwe, kuwa 28 Munyonyo 1966.

1966-1993, intebe yasa nk’aho idahari

Igihe kapitene Michel Micombero akuyeho ubwami muri Munyonyo 1966, igihugu cari mu bibazo biturutse kw’ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi bw’umwami Mwambutsa IV ryakozwe n’umuganwa, umuhungu wiwe, Karoli Ndizeye ( afise imyaka 19 gusa) kuwa 8 Mukakaro 1966.

Iyo ntwazangabo ntiyashimye ko Reta ishingwa n’umushikiranganji wa mbere. Mu myaka cumi yarongoye igihugu (1966-1976), Micombero yagenye umushikiranganji wa mbere rimwe rizima, muri Mukakaro 1972 nawe nyene ahamara umwanya urume rumara. Kugeza ico gihe, Uburundi bwari bwiteze ibwirizwa shingiro ryahavuye ryemezwa muri Mukakaro 1974. Ariko naryo nyene, mu mpapuro 7 ryari rifise, nta kintu na kimwe ryavuga ku mushikiranganji wa mbere.

Uwamusubiriye koloneli Yohani Batista Bagaza (1976-1987) yaragarukanye iyo ntebe y’umushikiranganji wa mbere mu myaka ya mbere y’intwaro yiwe. Ariko naho nyene nta tegeko ryamugenga, kuko ata bwirizwa shingiro ryariho. N’ibwirizwa shingiro ryo muri  Munyonyo 1981 ntaco ryaje rivuga kuri iyo ntebe.

Nawe majoro Petero Buyoya, yafashe ubutegetsi kuwa 3 Nyakanga 1987, yatwaye umwaka wose ata mushikiranganji wa mbere ahari. Ariko nawe nyene, ata bwirizwa shingiro rihari, yagenye umushikiranganji wa mbere muri Gitugutu 1988 mu gushigikira Ubumwe bw’Abarundi inyuma y’ubwicanyi bw’i Ntega na Marangara. Uwo yagumyeho kugeza umugambwe FRODEBU utsinze amatora y’umukuru w’igihugu mu 1993.

1993-1998, umushikiranganji wa mbere adasanzwe

Uburundi bwagiye buragengwa n’amategeko abiri muri iyo myaka itanu, ibwirizwa shingiro ryo muri Ntwarante 1992 hamwe n’itegeko ry’umukuru w’igihugu ryo muri Nyakanga 1996.

Mw’itegeko rya mbere, hambavu yo kurongora ibikorwa vya Reta no gushira mu ngiro amategeko y’umukuru w’igihugu, ingingo ya 91 yaha umushikiranganji wa mbere uburenganzira bwo kugena abantu mu mabanga amwe amwe asanzwe hamwe n’aya gisirikare; nayo igihe umukuru w’igihugu afatiriwe, ingingo ya 85 yegurira amabanga yiwe umushikiranganji wa mbere.

Mw’itegeko rigira kabiri, ryagiyeho inyuma y’ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi bwa Nyenicubahiro Ntibantunganya Sylvestre agaca asubirirwa na Petero Buyoya mu 1996, amabanga y’umushikiranganji wa mbere yari arengeye cane ayo yahabwa n’ibwirizwa shingiro ryo muri Ntwarante 1992. 

Bishitse agafatirwa canke agaheba akazi bitumwe n’ugutanga imihoho, urupfu, n’ibindi, umushikiranganji wa mbere ni we yaca aba umukuru w’igihugu mu maguru masha.

Kuva mu 1961 gushika mu 1998, Uburundi bwaronse abashikiranganji ba mbere 14; muri bo 3 barasubijwe mu mabanga umwe nawe yari umugore.

Abashikiranganji ba mbere Uburundi bwagize kuva bwitwa Uburundi

Mwami Mwambutsa 

  • Joseph Cimpaye ( mu ntango z’1961)
  • Ludoviko Rwagasore ( 1961)
  • André Muhirwa (1961-1963)
  • Petero Ngendandumwe (1963-1964)
  • Albin Nyamoya (1964-1965)
  • Petero Ngendandumwe (1965)
  • Joseph Bamina (1965)
  • Léopold Bihumugani (1965-1966)

Ntare V   :

  • Michel Micombero (1966)

Michel Micombero  :

  • Albin Nyamoya (1972)

Jean Baptiste Bagaza :

  • Colonel Edouard Nzambimana (1976-1979) 

Pierre Buyoya :

  • Adrien Sibomana (1988-1993) aracari ho

Melchior Ndadaye :

  • Sylvie Kinigi (1993-1994) aracariho

Cyprien Ntaryamira :

  • Anatole Kanyenkiko (1994) aracariho

Sylvestre Ntibantunganya :

  • Anatole Kanyenkiko (1994-1995)
  • Antoine Nduwayo (1995-1996) aracariho

Pierre Buyoya :

  • Pascal Firmin Ndimira (1996-1998)   aracariho

 

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