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« Amakoperative Rwagasore », ico yari asumbije ayandi mashirahamwe yo kwiteza imbere

Nk’uruganda rw’ivyiyumviro vyo kwiganzura, umugambi wo gushinga amakoperative y’abanyagihugu warabangamiye cane intwaro y’Ababiligi. Mu mpera z’imyaka y’1950, kugira ubwigenge mu butunzi vyonyene ntivyari bihagije; Rwagasore n’abo bagendana bipfuza kubona igihugu cikukiye vyanka vyakunda. 

Arangije amashure yiwe mu Bubiligi, mu mpera z’umwaka w’1956, umuganwa Rudoviko Rwagasore yaciye atahuka mu gihugu camwibarutse. Ico gihe, eka n’imbere y’aho, abanyamahanga ni bo bari biharije ivy’urundandazwa. Ni co gituma Rwagasore yaciye atanguza ikoperative y’abadandaza mu Burundi (yitwa CCB mu mpfunyapfunyo y’igifaransa). Yemerewe gukora ku mugaragaro muri Ruheshi 1957. Ni we yaciye ayirongora, hamwe n’iyindi Koperative y’Abaguzi n’abadandaza muri Rwanda-Urundi, yatanguye muri Ntwarante 1955. Zigitangura, izo koperative zibiri zari zigamije guteza imbere Abanyafurika, kugira na bo bahiganwe n’abanyamahanga kudandaza. Rimwe na rimwe, ibiciro vy’ibidandazwa vyaho vyaba ari vyiza cane. I Bujumbura, imangazini zikomeye z’ayo makoperative zari mu Buyenzi no mu Bwiza.

Itanguzwa ry’izo koperative yari intambwe idasanzwe mw’iterambere ry’ubutunzi bw’Abarundi. Nsavyimana Déo, umuhinga mu vya kahise akaba n’umwigisha muri Kaminuza y’Uburundi arabisigura : “ Ku ntwaro y’Ababiligi, urudandazwa rwari rwiharijwe n’abanyamahanga. Ivyo Rwagasore yarabibonye kandi aca yipfuza ko bihinduka.”

Abo bene amashirahamwe, eka na Rwagasore nyene, barateye imbere ku buryo  butangaje. Abakoloni na bo baca batangura gukebwa. Iterambere ry’amakoparative ryarababaza intwaro y’ababiligi, kuko basanze batagishoboye guhagarika ivyiyumviro vyo kwikukira vyariko bibiragira mu Barundi benshi.

Ibikoresho vy’urugamba rwa politike

 “Amakoperative bataziriye Rwagasore, yafasha mu gukomeza kwibeshaho no kwiteza imbere, eka mbere akanafasha mu kwegeranya abantu bahuje ivyiyumviro, yafatwa nk’ibirwanisho bikoreshwa mu kurwanya intwaro y’Ababiligi. Na canecane, ihuzwa ry’abanyagihugu b’Abarundi n’abaswahili bafatwa nk’abanyamahanga badafise ikibanza mu Burundi ryaratera amakenga abatware”; ivyo vyandikwa na Christine Deslaurier, umufaransakazi w’umuhinga mu vya kahise, mu gitabu ciwe citwa “Paroles et écrits de Louis Rwagasore” ( Amajambo n’ivyanditswe na Rwagasore ndlr) (urup.27).

Deslaurier yasiguye ubwo bwoba bw’igwirirana ry’izo koperative mu gitabu ciwe casohotse mu 2002: “Un monde politique en mutation: le Burundi à la veille de l’indépendance (± 1956-1961)” (Impunduka za politike: Uburundi buca bwikukira (± 1956-1961 ndlr)  kuva ku rupapuro rw’380.

Ku bwiwe, amakoperative Rwagasore yari agizwe n’abanyagihugu badatera ibibazo abakoloni, hamwe n’abaswahili bafatwa nk’aboroshe mu kuyoboka abazungu. Ariko rero, abo baswahili ni bo bari mu baterera cane muri ayo makoperative. 

Ikindi cari gihagaritse umutima Ababiligi ni Rwagasore ubwiwe. Inyuma y’imyaka ibiri uwo mugambi w’amakoperative utanguye, Rwagasore yari yamenyekanye cane mu Barundi, na canecane mu Baswahili mu Buyenzi. Yacitse nk’umuhuza wabo n’Abarundi bo mu yindi mice y’igihugu. Ico naco caratera amakenga abakoloni. Nk’umwana w’umwami,  yakundwa n’Abarundi nka bose. Yari nk’ikimenyetso c’ubumwe bw’Abarundi. Yari yaramenyekanye no kurusha abarongozi b’ico gihe.

Iyindi ngorane ni uko ayo makoperative atagenzurwa n’intwaro. Abategetsi ntibashobora kumenya ibivugirwa muri yo n’ubutumwa bwahavugirwa. Ayo makoperative yari arengeye ihuriro ryo kuganira ivyerekeye ubutunzi gusa. Kenshi na kenshi, muri ayo mashirarahamwe nyene ni ho baganirira ukuntu abakoloni babacura bufuni na buhoro.

Mu nyuma arahomba

Mu ntango y’umwaka w’1958, ya makoperative yagize ibibazo bidasanzwe, arahomba, agira n’amadeni menshi cane. Rwagasore yaragerageje kurondera ingurane aha na hariya kugira ayahagurutse, ariko Reta ikamubera intambamyi, kuko ntibemera abanyamitahe b’abanyamahanga baza gushigikira ayo makoperative. Yari ifise umugambi wo kuzihombesha, nk’uko Rwagasore yabiyagiriza.

Muri uwo mwaka nyene w’1958, ubutunzi bw’ayo mashirahamwe bwagumye bunyoganyoga. Mu ntumbero yo kuzibogora urunani CCRU rwarafuswe, maze hatanguzwa UCOBU, Union Cooperative du Burundi ( Ihuriro ry’amakoperative mu Burundi ndlr) yemererwa n’itegeko nshikiranganji nomero 221/142 ryashizweko umukono na Scheyven, yatwara Uburundi kuwa 12 Ruheshi 1958.

Mu kwezi kwakurikiye kwa Nyakanga, iryoshirahamwe ryahinduye izina ryitwa. Ryabaye COPICO ( Cooperative Indigene de Consommation) ariko na CCB ryagumye ribaho ku magendera. 

Bivamwo n’ivya politike

Mu 1959, uburenganzira bwo kuja mu mashirahamwe bwasinywe bwatumye abanyagihugu baja mu migambwe myinshi, ari navyo vyatumye abari mu makoperative boroherwa kuba abayoboke b’umugambwe. 

 “Mu ntango, yari yatangujwe mu mugambi w’iterambere ry’ubutunzi no kudandaza, CCRU na CCB ; co kimwe n’ayandi makoperative yavutse mu misi ya nyuma y’intwaro y’abazungu, kubera ivyiyumviro vyatangirwaho ku vyerekeye ingene abakoloni babakandamije, ayo makoperative yavamwo ivyiyumviro n’amajambo akomakomeye yo kwiganzura “, ivyo tubisoma muri ca gitabu Un monde politique en mutation : le Burundi à la veille de l’indépendance (urup. 388).

Kuba ayo makoperative ashigikiye ivyiyumviro vyo kwiganzura, vyaragaragara. N’ikoraniro kaminuza rya mbere ryabereye ku mugaragaro ry’umugambwe UPRONA ryabereye mu nyubakwa za CCB i Muramvya. Nabo abanywanyi ba mbere b’uwo mugambwe, nta  nkeka ko bakomoka muri ayo makoperative.

Umuzo w’amakoperative wabaye uruganda rwo kurondera ukwikukira n’ivyiyumviro vyo kwiganzura, kuko mu vyatuma abaho, hari kubera vyavugwa ko ubukoloni ari nk’urusyo rubuza Uburundi gutera imbere.

 

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  1. Igitabo  » Paroles et écrits de Louis Rwagasore » canditswe mu ndimi zibiri: igifaransa n’ikirundi.
    Mu kirundi citwa ngo  » Amajambo n’ivyanditswe dukesha Rudoviko Rwagasore « .